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英语学术论文写作技巧与格式要求

作者:2017-07-29 14:08阅读:文章来源:论文代写
本摘要只有6句话,117个词。第1句话明确指出研究目的:说明类胡萝卜素的摄人量大、眼睛颜色及眼睛大小与青光眼的关系。第2—3句是研究方法与研究对象。方法是通过调查问卷,研究对象是250名青光眼患者。第4~6句话每句话是调查结果:
1) 维生素A、E、C摄人量低可能与青光眼发病率高有关系;
2) 蓝眼睛青光眼患者的比例远远超过棕色眼睛或绿色眼睛青光眼患者;
3) 眼睛过大的人患青光眼的可能性更大。
本摘要中的主要句型结构:
This study investigates…表示研究内容或目的
Researchers designed a questionnaire…表示研究方法
This questionnaire was administered to…表示研究对象
The dietary data suggests that…表示调查数据与结果
A possible association has been suggested…表示调查结果
2.2 学术会议论文摘要
学术会议论文摘要写得好坏,直接关系到论文是否被录用。摘要起到说服会议论文评审委员会的作用。因此,摘要应该首先简要说明研究背景、内容、范围、价值与意义。在研究方法上也可以多花一点笔墨。会议论文摘要一般在200~250词之间。其结构布局如图2所示。
Title
Author(s), address
Background, 15revious studies, present situation, problems that need to be
solved: 
英文论文正文的写作技巧 
正文的写作技巧
学术论文的主体部分由引言、正文和结论构成。正文部分包括方法、结果与讨论。由于学术论文所涉及的学科、范围广泛,即使在同一学科领域内,由于选题、研究方法、工作进程不同,正文部分的内容也不尽相同,写作方法也就不存在统一的规定或一成不变的模式。所以,本章只着重介绍写正文部分时一些较为典型的语言现象,希望读者能够从中寻求到一般规律。
7.1 描述研究方法
研究方法(Method)部分主要内容包括:
(1)研究工作具备的基本前提或条件,如实验材料、实验场所、设备器材等。
(2)采样、实验、获取数据,并对数据进行技术处理的方法与过程。
(3)理论分析,包括理论依据、基本原理、公式推导、数理模型等。
采样与实验过程,要根据先后顺序或步骤进行描述。例1选自描述对千屈莱这种植物生长的采样与实验过程。
例l
Materials and Methods
[1] In August 1994,entire purple loosestrife(千屈莱)plants were harvested from three habitats(生长环境):1) an upland old field in the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area in north-eastern Ohio (n=5);2) a shallow ditch along Route 261 in Kent, OH (n = 10); and 3) the western shoreline of East Twin Lake, Portage County, OH (n = 6). These sites represent habitats which are never inundated(淹没) with water, are periodically inundated, or have saturated(浸透) soils, respectively. [2]Shoot sections (嫩枝条)of 5, 10, and 15 cm lengths were cut from these plants and positioned in flats(平地) containing a soil mixture of perlite (珍珠岩), vermiculite ( 蛭岩), and peatmoss (苔泥炭) ( 1:1:1). The flats were maintained in the Department of Biological Sciences' greenhouse where they experienced ambient meteorological conditions except for 6 seconds of mist every 3. 5 minutes between 8: 00 and 20: 00 hours daily. Shoot sections and attached leaves were examined at weekly intervals for pigment (色质) and tissue changes as well as for development of lateral shoots. After 26~28 days the sections were rinsed to remove adherent material and dried at room temperature (approximately 22℃ ) for a week. The adventitious roots from each section were removed with needle-nose forceps, dried at 60℃ for 24 hours, and then weighed to determine dry biomass. One lake site 5-cm section was lost during processing.
分析:
此部分严格按照时间顺序描述实验过程。第1段描述采样的时间、试样的来源与数量。名叫“千屈莱”的试样来自三个地带,分别代表三种生长环境。试样的数量分别是5、10、6棵。第2段首先描述实验基地,及其环境与条件。然后客观描述实验的详细过程与步骤。描述某一研究方法时,要考虑读者是否了解此方法。如果不了解,描述便需要详细一些。这一点在农、林、医学、教育、社会科学、环境科学等领域尤为突出。例2中的选段描述的是一个关于生活用水和农业用水质量”函授培训班的教学与评估方法。由于教学过程与评估方法的特殊性,读者事先不可能对它有详细了解,所以文中要描述得清楚、详细一些。
例2
Correspondence Teaching Methods
[1] The program evaluated in this research was a correspondence training course entitled "Quality Water for Home and Farm" developed for county extension agents( 函授部学员). The program began with a one-day meeting followed by seven monthly written lessons. The program concluded with another one-day meeting. The one lesson-per-month format was selected to allow agents to complete the &tar1as part of their regular work schedule.
[2] The program followed a simple model for identifying water quality problems and potential solutions.
Step 1: Identify the beneficial uses of water (such as for drinking water, livestock water, irrigation, recreation).
Step 2: Test the water to ensure that it is of sufficient quality for the beneficial use.
Step 3: If water quality problems are identified, examine correction options in four categories to determine which is most affordable and appropriate. The categories are:
1. Protect the supply from the contaminant;
2. Find and eliminate the contaminant source;
3. Treat the water to remove the contaminant;
4. Find and develop a new water supply.
[3] Steps 1 and 2 on water testing were presented to participants in the initial six-hour meeting. The first correspondence lesson also covered water testing. The six remaining correspondence lessons addressed each of the options for solving water quality problems. Water treatment was divided into three lessons; disinfection, treatment of nuisance waters, and removals of toxins. The final lesson and final meeting covered the development of new water supplies. Each written lesson contained reading material, references, teaching materials, questions, calculations, and exercises.
[4]Agents taking the water quality correspondence training were required to return assignments each month to remain enrolled in the program. Letters of encouragement were sent to delinquents. At the end of the program, extension agents who completed the program received certificates. A list of graduates was distributed to extension administrators, faculty, and staff.
Evaluation Methods
[5]The participants were tested to evaluate the extent of learning. Simple tests were constructed of true/false, multiple choice, and fill-in-the-blank questions to address the important aspects of the program using methods described by Ary et al. (1990). A written pretest was administered at the beginning of the first meeting. A post test of similar but different questions was administered at the end of the closing meeting. The purpose of the pretest was to measure the previous knowledge of the participants. The participants may also learn the subject matter from the pretest, become familiar with the testing approach and therefore be less anxious when taking the post test.
[6] The post tests were used to measure the increased knowledge and skills of the participants following the inservice. The post tests also served to reinforce the most important aspects of the training and helped illustrate to the participants and instructor where additional study may be required.
[7] Acquisition of new skills was evaluated using practicum exercises and demonstrations. Following instruction in how to interpret a test report each participant was given a water test report and asked to write their interpretation. After being taught how to collect a water sample, five agents were selected at random and asked to collect a water sample for the instructor.
[8] The teaching activity of the agents was measured through their monthly assignment reports.
分析:
例2比较详细地描述一个函授培训班的管理、教学与评估方法。第1~4段为管理与教学方法。篇章的布局模式基本上是先后顺序与步骤式,即按照培训班的三个主要阶段的先后顺序来安排文章的结构。
第5~8段介绍培训班学习效果的评估方法。共采用三种方法进行评估。第5~6段介绍对主要教学内容的整体评估方法,也就是将pretest(培训前测试)与posttest(培训后测试)相结合的方法。第7段和第8段分别介绍教学过程中单项技能评估方法。
7.1.1 描述方法时的语言特点
采用被动语态的过去式是描述实验方法与过程时最典型的句子结构特点。这并不是科技英语写作中的什么规定或者原则,而是因为在描述实验过程或方法时,句子中的主题或中心是实验材料、场地和方法本身,表达“做了什么”、“怎么做的”之意,而不是表达“谁做了什么”。因此,在描述方法时,常将实验材料或受试者作为主语,谓语动词自然要用被动语态。我们可以利用例1和例2中的句子加以说明。
例3中的句子都摘自例1“Materials and Methods"部
英文论文的结论部分写作要点 
结论、致谢、参考文献
8.1 如何写结论
学术文章的结论部分(Conclusion)是作者对有关研究课题进行的总体性讨论。结论必须具有严密的科学性和客观性,它反映本研究课题的价值,同时对以后的研究具有指导意义。如果文章中的Discussion一节已对研究结果进行了全面的分析、综合、归纳、推理和总结,那么Conclusion则可以比较简短。
从某种意义上说,Conclusion与Introduction遥相呼应,因为Introduction部分介绍了本课题的研究目的,那么Conclusion要告诉读者这些目的是否达到,在研究中做了哪些工作,取得了什么结果,这些结果说明了什么问题,有何价值和意义,研究过程中存在或发现了哪些问题,原因是什么,建议如何解决等。
8.1.1 结论部分的内容与结构布局
一般来说,结论部分的具体内容及其组织框架如下。
(1) 概括说明本课题的研究内容、结果及其意义与价值。(2) 比较具体地说明本研究证明了什么假设或理论,得出了什么结论,研究结果有何实用价值,有何创造性成果或见解,解决了什么实际问题,有何应用前景等。(3) 与他人的相关研究进行比较。(4) 本课题的局限性、不足之处,还有哪些尚待解决的问题。
(5)展望前景,或指出进一步研究的方向。在上面五项内容中,第一、二项是必不可少的。第三、四、五项内容可以根据需要而定。
例1 Conclusion 1Two factors to influence mold filling (铸件充型) have been studied. one is the pouring temperature (浇铸温度) and the other is the molding method (by machine or by hand). 2The filling length (充型长度) is proportional to the pouring temperature. 3The influence of different molding methods on mold filling is more complicated. 4The filling length in the hand-made mold is 1.5 times as long as the one in the machine-made mold due to different thermal conductivity ( 热导性能). 5Venting (出气孔) has little influence. 6The simulated results are in good agreement with the experiments. 
分析:第1句概括研究内容:研究影响铸件充型的两个因素,即浇铸温度与铸型方法。第2~5句总结通过研究而得出的结论,即上述两个因素是如何影响铸件充型的。其中第2句说明第一个因素(浇铸温度)与充型长度的关系是成比例的。第3句说明第二个因素(铸型方法)的影响比较复杂。第4句说明手工铸型与机器铸型方法对长度的不同影响。第5句说明出气孔的影响小。第6句是对研究结果的总结性评价。
例2 Conclusions 1Through the example of a 60-storey building design, it has been demonstrated that a simplified approach can be used to assess the ultimate lateral shear strength (整体极限抗剪能力) of a structure. 2The proposed simplified design approach in the typical building seismic design process (抗震设计过程) would be valuable. 3From the findings of the simplified design, new building can be fine tuned for a better allocation of material. 4 In existing buildings, the approach can be used to identify locations of potential undercapacity (载荷能力弱的部分). 5Although the proposed approach is based on solid capacity design concepts, it involves substantial implifications. 6To confirm the results of this simplified approach, a more complete analysis of the core-frame system is suggested for further studies.
分析:例2选自一篇建筑物整体极限抗剪能力的测算方法的论文。首先概括了文章的内容,而且指出了本研究的局限性,并为下一步研究工作提出了建议。选段中的第1句概括研究课题内容,即提出了一个整体极限抗剪能力测算的简便方法。第2~4句肯定了这一设计方法的价值和应用前景。分别说明此方法有利于建筑物的抗震设计、建筑材料的合理分配,也有利于查出建筑物内荷载能力弱的部分。第5句是这一方法的局限性:尽管此方法以负载能力理论为依据,但做了大量的简化工作。因此第6句建议下一步研究方向,以证明文中所提出的方法的可靠性。
例31Overall, our study has revealed a variety of patterns at the community and population levels, none of which seem to indicate obvious decline in southeastern Ohio's oak-hickory (橡树与山核桃科树木) forests. 2Clearly, sporadic insect outbreaks, pathogens (病菌), and climatic events have caused excessive mortality of certain species in certain stands (树林). 3Some stands exhibited mortality as high as 40%. 4However, an average of 20% dead stems in a stand appears to be reasonable without inferring excessive mortality or decline. 5Likewise, certain species were in an obvious state of decline, but these generally had a clear pathogenic explanation. 6Changes occurring due to insects and pathogens may be a natural and necessary phenomenon (Castello et al. 1995). 7Evaluation of decline symptoms in smaller size classes might provide additional useful information to be used in understanding the oak regeneration problem.
分析:例3摘自一篇关于俄亥俄东南部地区橡树与山核桃科树木生长状况的研究论文。第1句:对研究内容的总体概括。第2~5句:总结研究结果,即某些树种死亡的原因是害虫、病菌和气候。其中第2句概括这些原因,第3~5句是具体结果及原因:有些林区的树木死亡率为40%,但是20%属于正常现象;有些树种死亡现象明显,原因是病菌的侵害。第6句:引用他人的研究结果和观点,以解释上述结果。害虫和病菌的侵袭所造成的树木死亡是一种自然和必然的现象。第7句:指出以后的研究方向。下面一则结论摘自一篇关于学校科技活动项目是否有助于达到科学教育目标的研究论文。
例41Science projects appear to be an important part of science education. 2Teachers feel that student science projects are meeting the educational goals for science. 3Experience through modeling the necessary skills in the classroom has the strongest relationship to science projects meeting these goals. 4Participation in a science fair beyond the local level, and supportive help from parents and other adults may also improve the effectiveness of student science projects. 5By utilizing these methods, more teachers may be able to address the goals of the National Science Teachers Association.
分析:第1—2句为总体结论:学校的科技活动是科技教育中的一个重要组成部分。教师认为,学生的科技活动有助于实现科技教育目标。第3~4句为两条具体结论:第一条结论是:课堂上的模拟操作活动经验与实现科技教育的目标有密切关系。第二条结论是:参加科技博览会、父母或其他成人的支持可以提高学生科技活动的效果。第5句展望未来趋势。从上述例子可以看出,通过一项研究工作,可能会得出几条结论,这些结论的主次轻重可以从字里行间表现出来。如例4中的第3句话通过使用…has the strongest relationship…点出了最主要的结论,而在第4句话中运用…also…这个词,来表示递进关系,说明这句话陈述的内容是研究结论之二。有时为了清楚醒目,可以将结论列成几条,例5和例6都是如此。
例5Conclusions(1) A systematic crashworthiness ( 碰撞性能) development of a lightweight electrical vehicle with aluminum front structure and composite (复合材料) passenger compartment is successfully completed and discussed here. Nonlinear finite element analysis (非线性有限元分析法) is used extensively to design and optimize the aluminum structure. (2) Implementation of damage mechanics models in the nonlinear crash codes reliably predict the post-yield behavior of aluminum components, and therefore, the codes can be successfully used for crashworthiness development of metallic structures with limited ductility (韧性有限的金属结构).(3) Even though crash analysis of composite members is not possible at this time, current modeling technology provides sufficient information about their design.(4) Development of material models in crash analysis codes to simulate the crash behavior of composite components can help to develop composite front-end structures for crashworthiness performance.
例6 Conclusions In this paper, a new prototype model of micropump(微小医用泵) using ICPF actuator (驱动控制器) is proposed.
英文论文的标点 
Punctuation
Bad punctuation can often make even the best writing unintelligible. On the other hand, good punctuation can make your meaning clear and your language effective. English punctuation generally differs from that of other European languages; even though there is often considerable room for personal preferences, a mastery of the basic rules is indispensable.
There is one overriding principle: to use the bare minimum of punctuation necessary to keep the writing intelligible. The following list of rules makes no claim to exhaustiveness.
I. The Apostrophe (')
1. men's, women's, children's, people's
It is correct to write this area's problems, meaning "the problems of this area", and these areas' problems, meaning "the problems of these areas": in fact, putting apostrophes anywhere else would be wrong. But the plurals of man, woman, and child are exceptions to this general rule: thus we write the men's wives, the women's husbands, the children's mothers, and nothing else.
Another important exception is the word people when it denotes the plural of "person": thus we would write these people's behavior, meaning "the behavior of these persons", but these peoples' behavior, meaning "the behavior of these peoples" (i.e. ethnic groups).
Other irregular plurals are treated in the same way as men, women, children, and people: above all the plurals of ox, sheep, goose and mice (e.g. the oxen's pasture, the sheep's wool, the geese's flight, the mice's tails).
2. A mistake that is frequent among foreign learners of English is to write a phrase such as "these area's problems", when what the person actually means is these problems of the area. 3. It is best to use the apostrophe when you want to show the plural of something which cannot normally be plural:
The past tense of occur is spelt with two r's.
I accept the idea in principle, but there are a lot of if’s.
4. Strings of apostrophes are to be avoided. Thus one should write the friends of that man's son, instead of "that man's son's friends".
5. We say in ten days' time, in twenty years' time (i.e. we use the apostrophe). 6. We say each other's, not "each others'" (e.g. to get on each other's nerves).
II. The Colon (:) 1. Quotations
The colon is often used to introduce quotations:
To quote Nietzsche: "God is dead!"
As the bard (One of an ancient Celtic order of minstrel poets who composed and recited verses celebrating the legendary exploits of chieftains and heroes.吟游诗人古代凯尔特族的吟游诗人,自编自唱,吟唱酋长和英雄的传奇业绩) so abruptly puts it:“All the world’s a stage”
The colon can also be used to introduce direct speech, especially in rather formal or serious contexts:
Finally Mark Antony began his address: "Friends, Romans, countrymen (compatriots), lend me your ears...".
N.B. (N.B.=[拉]nota bene (=note well)注意, 留心)
i. The colon is not used to introduce conversation.
ii. Direct formal quotations begin with a capital letter.
iii. The colon is not used to introduce quotes consisting of very brief phrases:
Do you know that Mrs Thatcher actually said "shut up" to Lord Carrington?
2. Explanations
The colon is often used after a main clause where the following statement explains, elaborates, or illustrates that clause, especially in formal contexts. It may sometimes be replaced by a full stop or a semicolon.
There is no point in worrying: disasters are sure to happen anyway. (Full stop and semicolon also possible.)
The Church is totally opposed to two aspects of the permissive society: that is, abortion on demand and artificial methods of birth control.
Apartheid (种族隔离) was not overthrown: rather, it died a natural death. (Full stop and semicolon also possible.)
The question is this: Is killing ever justified?
He certainly has a drinking-problem: I once saw him drink a whole bottle of whisky. (Full stop and semicolon also possible.)
There is one good thing about skinheads (剃光头的人) and punks: they absolutely hate each other.
3. Lists
Colons can also be used to introduce lists or enumerations, often using the following phrases: as follows, for example, for instance, such as, and the following.
In the world described in Orwell's Animal Farm two basic principles become all-important: (i) all animals are equal; (ii) some animals are more equal than others.
Our solar system consists of the following planets (行星): Mercury(水星), Venus(金星), Earth, Mars(火星), Jupiter(木星), Saturn(土星), Uranus(天王星), Neptune(海王星), and Pluto(冥王星).
N.B. Try to avoid sentences like the following, where the subject and the verb are separated from the complement:
The ingredients of gunpowder are: saltpeter(硝石), sulphur(硫磺), and charcoal.
Better would be to remove the colon, or else to rephrase the sentence:
The ingredients of gunpowder are as follows: saltpetre, sulphur, and charcoal.
or:
Gunpowder has three ingredients: saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal.
III. The Comma (,)
1. Defining and Non-defining
Compare the two following sentences (a and b):
a. Pop-stars who earn fortunes should pay higher taxes.
(Defining relative clause---i.e. only those pop-stars who earn fortunes should pay higher taxes.)
b. Pop-stars, who earn fortunes, should pay higher taxes.
(Non-defining relative clause -- i.e. all pop-stars earn fortunes and therefore should pay higher taxes.)
The first sentence refers only to some pop-stars, while the second sentence refers to all pop-stars. Note that in the second sentence there are two commas (not one), to mark the beginning and the end of the clause.
The same principle operates with the words when and where.
Compare the following:
a. The day when JFK was assassinated I was crossing the Atlantic.
b. On November 22, when JFK was assassinated, I was crossing the Atlantic.
c. The town where I was stationed was pretty arid.
d. Quetta, where I was stationed, was a pretty arid place.
Note that a comma is possible in a (after assassinated), but not in c.
The same principle also extends to appositional phrases.
Compare the following:
a. Nietzsche's work The Gay Science was written in 1888.
b. Nietzsche's last work, The Gay Science(艳体诗), was written in 1888.
c. The famous thinker Michel Foucault has just died.
d. A famous thinker, Michel Foucault, has just died.
e.The Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, has just resigned.
f. Margaret Thatcher, the Prime Minister, has just resigned.
In a the title of the work is defining, i.e. The Gay Science was only one of several works by Nietzsche. In b the title is non-defining, because only one work can be the author's last. In c Michel Foucault is not the only famous thinker; therefore, the name Michel Foucault is defining, and hence no commas. In d A famous thinker and Michel Foucault are one and the same; therefore, Michel Foucault is non-defining, and hence commas. Sentences e and f are non-defining (and therefore with commas), because in Britain there is only one Prime Minister at any one time.
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